Does anyone know Gauri Shankar Shukla? Or Dr Rajiv Sharma? Or Sudhakar Dwivedi? Or Dayanand Pandey? There is every likelihood that you might not have known any of them. The fact is all of them are sadhus, occupying the highest position among Hindu priests ‑ Shankaracharyas. They might not be as notorious as Baba Gurmeet Ram Rahim of Dera Sachcha Sauda, who was convicted of rape charges last month. But, they all do have dubious credentials.
Shukla, who got married at the age of 11 and became a father at 18, thus became the first Shankaracharya of Prayag Peeth. His name was changed to Swami Madhavananda Saraswati. He set up his peeth at a small house in Allahpur locality of Allahabad. But soon, the police demolished the illegally constructed building. He then forcibly occupied a 14-room building in the same locality. Now, he has declared eldest of his five sons as his successor of Prayag Peeth.
However, Sudhakar hit headlines in 2006 when he along with his friend Rajesh Pachauri was named by Anti-Terrorist Squad of the police on charges of engineering explosions outside a mosque in Malegaon, Maharashtra that killed 6 persons. He was arrested on basis of his mobile phone records which was in the name of Dayanand Pandey.
A Shankaracharya is to Hindu religion, what Pope is for Christians. But, Shankaracharyas are being produced in the country at an industrial speed. There are no checks and balances. That is why it is very difficult to decipher the genuine sadhu from the fake one.
At last count, there were at least 46 shankaracharyas of one or the other Peeth. This includes one who claims to be a Shankaracharya of a Peeth located in, hold your breath, Pakistan occupied Kashmir.
There is a whole hierarchy of being a simple Pujari to Mahant, Acharya, Mahamandeshwar and ultimately Shankaracharya. Examples of Sudhakar Dwivedi and Gauri Shankar Shukla go on to show how people have been manipulating the system and traditions, yet going scot free. Nobody challenges fake babas except those directly affected by their tricks.
This is why Akhil Bhartiya Akhada Parishad released a list of 14 fake babas. This was in the wake of the massive hue and cry after the sentencing of Gurmeet Ram Rahim. Interestingly, the list fa fake saints were released by Parishad’s president Narendra Giri and included names of Sukhvinder Kaur alias Radhey Maa and Beer Bar owner Sachin Datta – both of whom had been ‘appointed’ Mahamandleshwar by Narendra Giri himself.
The list had the likes of Rampal, Nirmalpreet Singh alias Nirmal Baba, Ashumal Shrimalani alias Asaram Bapu and his son Narayan Sai, Aseemanand, Shivmurti Dwivedi alias Ichchhadhari Bhimanand, Vivekanand Jha alias Omji, Brihaspati Giri, Kush Muni, Om Namah Shivay Baba and Malkan Giri. Interestingly, most of these names have already been arrested or have been in the news for all the wrong reasons like rape or murder charges. But the name of Nithyanand was missing from the list, though he too faces rape charges.
These are the few well-known ones who have been found out. But, for every one of these, there must be thousands who have been indulging in various unlawful activities and fooling the public.
Adi Shankaracharya (788-820 AD) founded four seats (Peeth) in four corners of the country to propagate and disseminate Sanatan Dharm. They were Jyotir Peeth in Badrinath (North), Shringeri Peeth in Chikmanglur district of Karnataka (South), Sharda Peeth at Dwarka in Gujarat (West) and Govardhan Peeth at Puri in Odisha (East). The entire idea behind this was to let these scholarly saints keep an eye on the developments of Sanatan Dharm and congregate at the four Kumbhs every three years to discuss the way forward and settle disputes of philosophical nature arising within the Sanatan Dharma. It must be noted that at the time of Shankaracharya, there was no entity called Hindus, as the faiths practised in Bharatvarsh were largely philosophy based and not schools of religion. The term ‘Hinduism’ was a much later – and some say maleficent – invention.
Later two more places were recognised as upa-Peeth or sub-seats ‑ Kashi in Uttar Pradesh where Adi Shankara lived and Kanchi in Tamil Nadu where he died.
Only Kashi Vidwat Parishad and Bharat Dharma Mahamandal —groups of saints ‑ have got the right to recognise a senior spiritual practitioner as a Shankaracharya and after due diligence entrusts additional charge of a mutt to a revered saint in case the successor is not nominated.
Adi Shankaracharya has written in his book Mahaanusashan that someone would be a Shankaracharya if he is learned, knows the Veda, Vedanta and Shashtra well. He should be a Brahmin and a disciple of a sitting Shankaracharya. He should be a Dandi Sanyasi, a hermit whose sole personal belonging is a stick forked at the upper end, and a saffron jhola, for collecting alms from whoever willingly gives. Dandi Sanyasis cannot ask for, least of all, demand anything from anyone
The authentic scriptures prescribe the highly austere anointing procedure for the Shankaracharya. The Sanskrit scripture, Mathamanya Upanishad lays down the selection process, while Mahaanushashan Upanishad lists the eligibility criteria. The process is foolproof. The tradition is that a Shankaracharya would nominate his successor in his lifetime who will be subsequently recognised by the Kashi Vidwat Parishad. Also, in a case where a Shankaracharya fails to nominate such a successor, the Parishad would appoint a candidate from among his disciples, says its general secretary Batuk Prasad Shastri.
Kashi Vidwat Parishad (KVP) is a 150-years old organisation with 35 living members. In case of disputes, Parishad should adjudicate and its decision will be binding on warring parties.
Vested interests, however, have created three more similar sounding organizations ‑ Varanasi Vidwat Parishad, Varanaseya Vidwat Parishad and Akhil Bhartiya Vidwat Parishad. Some people have created a Prayag Vidwat Parishad as well. When is the process so clearly laid out then how do delinquents like Shukla and Dwivedi find loopholes in it?
Septuagenarian Batuk Shastri clearly remembers Sudhakar Dwivedi’s anointment. KVP Vice President Ram Yatna Shukla along with KVP spokesman Shivji Upadhyaya approached Shastri with Rajesh Pachauri requesting him to convene a meeting of the Parishad for selection of Sudhakar Dwivedi a.k.a. Swami Amritanand as Shankaracharya of Jammu Peeth.
They claim to have the support of at least half a dozen other KVP members. Shastri objected on two counts ‑ first Jammu is not a Peeth. The Northern seat of Shankaracharya is in Badrinath. Secondly, Dwivedi had two wives and the matter was in court.
Shastri cancelled the meeting but Pachauri, Shukla and Upadhyaya formed a parallel body called Varanaseya Vidwat Parishad and went ahead with Abhishek (anointment) of Dwivedi as Swami Amritanand Saraswati of Kashmir.
After Dwivedi’s arrest by the ATS, Shastri demanded a thorough probe into the matter. Convener of the function, RY Shukla, now denies having even attended it. Shivji Upadhyaya says he attended the function in his capacity as pro-vice chancellor of Sampoornanand Sanskrit University and did not take any money for that. Pachauri has been untraceable since Dwivedi’s arrest.
Kashi Vidwat Parishad had ordained Swami Achyutanand as Shankaracharya of Dwarka in February this year. Ever since questions have been raised on its functioning. Swami Sadanand Saraswati who is in charge of Dwarka Peeth’s Haridwar ashram, on behalf of Shankaracharya Swami Swaroopanand Saraswati, has filed a FIR against both KVP and Achyutanand in a Haridwar police station. He demanded a ban on Achyutanand’s entry in Haridwar and Dwarka. The function was attended by heads of a number of Akhadas including Akhada Parishad chief Narendra Giri.
There is a section of Sadhus which has been accusing KVP of becoming a den of vested interests. It members are no more interested in testing applicant’s knowledge of Hindu scriptures and Vedic traditions. Some of them are now indulging in minting money, they claim.
Let alone the despicable case of fake Peeths and fake Shankaracharyas, barring Shringeri Peeth, three of the four original Peeths are facing ownership disputes with each centre having more than two claimants.
Jyotir Peeth at Badrikashram: According to official accounts, after the period of one Swami Ramakrishna Tirtha in the 18th century, the matha was extinct for about 165 years, before it was revived in 1941, under Swami Brahmananda Saraswati.
The appointment of Swami Brahmananda Saraswati in 1941 was made by Bharata Dharma Mahamandala, Kashi Vidvat Parishad and Akhil Bharatiya Dharmasangha, with the concurrence of Swami Bharati Krishna Tirtha, the then Sankaracharya of Puri, and Swami Chandrasekhara Bharati of Sringeri peeth. Hindu rulers of Garhwal, Varanasi and Darbhanga were also involved.
Swami Brahmananda Saraswati passed away in 1953. A few weeks after, a will was found, according to which his disciple Shantananda Saraswati was named as his first choice of a successor who named Swaroopanand as next Shankaracharya.
However, many followers of Brahmananda Saraswati challenged the authenticity of the will. Swami Krishnabodha Asrama too was appointed a Shankaracharya who, in turn, named his disciple Madhvashram as his successor.
Meanwhile, Vasudevananda Saraswati too claimed a succession of Shantanand Saraswati. For 26 years he had donned the mantle of Shankaracharya of Jyotir Mutt. But two years ago, Vasudevanand Saraswati was declared by a court as a ‘fake’. In a significant ruling two years ago, a civil court in Allahabad rubbished the claim of Vasudevanand over the seat and stated that Swami Swaroopanand Saraswati was the rightful Shankaracharya of Jyotir Mutt. Swaroopanand had moved the court seeking his right to the seat as the Shankaracharya.
Confirming Swaroopanand’s plea and rejecting the claim of Vasudevanand, the civil judge (senior division) Gopal Upadhyaya ordered Vasudevanand to stop using the title of Shankaracharya and not to sit on the throne and carry other symbols like a dandi and the special umbrella meant for the religious head.
According to Mahaanusashan, a scripture written by Adi Shankaracharya, only a Shankaracharya is entitled to these symbols. The 308-page court order also stated that Vasudevanand had furnished fake documents to prove his claim to the throne.
Incidentally, Vasudevanand is backed by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. The Vishva Hindu Parishad promotes him at its meetings as the Shankaracharya of Jyotir Mutt. On the other hand, Swaroopanand is considered close to the Congress leaders.
The property of Jyotir Mutt is presently divided between Vasudevananda's camp and Swaroopanand's camp. On the way to Badrinath, in the village of Joshimath, there are three separate establishments, respectively controlled by Madhvashram, Vasudevananda and Swaroopanand. They are quite near to each other, each calling itself the official Jyotir Mutt. Incidentally, Madhavashram has accused Swaroopanand of ordering a murderous assault on him and shows off his scars.
Sharda Peeth, Dwarka: A complication was introduced in 1982, when the Shankaracharya of Dwaraka passed away, leaving a will with a few names, including Swaroopananda, who was then coronated at Dwaraka, in a ceremony presided over by the then Shankaracharya of Sringeri.
There have been two other claimants for being Shankaracharya of Sharda Peeth. They are Swami Raj Rajeshwanand Saraswati and Swami Achyutanand Teerth, who was coronated by Akhada Parishad in Haridwar this year. Achyutanand has interestingly never set his foot in Dwarka. He has been heading Bhuma Akhada in Haridwar.
Govardhan Peeth, Puri: Though Swami Nishchalanand Saraswati is officially recognised Shankaracharya of Puri, yet an imposter Adhokshanand Saraswati surfaced about 10 years ago, claiming to be the ‘real’ Shankaracharya of Puri. After a long drawn court battle, Nishchalanand succeeded in getting an order banning Adhokshanand’s entry in Puri. Still the latter goes around the world terming Nishchalanand a fake and himself as the true heir of Puri Mutt. He once announced to mediate between Kashmiri Hurriyat leaders and the Government of India to bring peace to the Valley.
Swami Nishchalanand’s deputy Swami Gopalanand claims Adhokshanand hails from Varanasi and claims to be a disciple and successor of Swami Niranjandev Devatirtha, the previous Shankaracharya of the Puri Math. "Nishchalanand Ji is aged about 60 while Adhokshanand is about 28 years old," he said adding that the latter had nothing to do with the Govardhan Math.
Kanchi Kamkoti, Kanchipuram: There is no leadership dispute on this Upa-Peeth, though both, the origin of the mutt as well its head priest Swami Jayendra Saraswati, who too is an RSS protégé, have been involved in many controversies. The mutt claims to be 2,500 years old through the Adi Shankaracharya’s lifetime was 8th century AD. Secondly, the mutt claims that Adi Shankara died here and it houses his Samadhi as well. Skeptics doubt this, saying how can there be a Samadhi inside a temple, and claim that Adi Shankara spent his last days in the Himalayas near Kedarnath.
Jayendra Saraswati was named as an accused in the murder of a fellow priest Shankaranand. The main accused Appu alias Krishnaswami not only confessed to murdering but also implicated Jayendra and his successor Vijeyendra Saraswati, as chief conspirators. However, after a decade-long trial, both Shankaracharyas were absolved, as there was ‘insufficient’ evidence.
The Way Out
"The Shankaracharya of Puri is already in talks with the other three Shankaracharyas. Also, he will try to bring all the Madhavacharyas, Nimbarkacharyas, Ramanujancharyas and Ramanandacharyas together on this issue," Swami Gopalanand said.
It is more than clear thus that unholy characters, with the intent of capturing the immense wealth of these religious centres, have broken down all hierarchy and process, subverting all the original checks and balances that Adi Shankara had made institutional for the protection of Sanatan Dharm. Today, anyone can declare himself a sadhu, take a fancy designation and start the opiate business of religion. Any attempt to curb such practices are bound to be labelled as ‘infringement’ in religious traditions and practices.
Even Vishwa Hindu Parishad, a self-proclaimed organisation of Hindutva torchbearers, too is in no hurry to look within. A senior VHP leader said this is a vilification campaign launched by anti-national elements to divide the Hindu society. Some pseudo-secular politicians and pliable organisations are just playing along. Conceding that there were few ‘rotten apples’, he claimed the purging will have to be from within the religion and its leaders.
But the situation within the original Sanatan Dharm today is not just sad, it is scary: allegations of murders, rapes, court cases… it just stinks!
Shukla, who got married at the age of 11 and became a father at 18, became the first Shankaracharya of Prayag Peeth, as Swami Madhavananda Saraswati
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